|dc.description.abstract||The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship three different
instructional models had with students’ mathematics achievement. The research
factors included group membership (flipped, online, and traditional), student
demographics (gender, age, and race/ethnicity), and students’ affective domain
(attitudes toward mathematics, mathematics self-efficacy with respect to algebra,
and locus of control). The study used a quasi-experimental, modified
nonrandomized pretest-posttest control group, involving intact classes of 117
students during the fall 2015 semester. The data collection instruments consisted of
several different assessments: (a) a four-section questionnaire, (b) a test of
prerequisite skills (TPRS), (c) three unit examinations, and (d) an end-of-semester
comprehensive final examination.
A hierarchical multiple regression strategy was used to analyze the data.
Results showed: (a) students in the flipped group scored on average 2.57 and 1.67
units respectively, higher on the final examination, which was the measure of
student achievement, than students in the online group and traditional group; (b)
student age had a significant and negative effect on student achievement; (c)
mathematics self-efficacy had a significant and direct relationship on student achievement; and (d) there were no significant interactions between group
membership and the other research factors relative to student achievement.
Stepwise regression analysis confirmed the results of the hierarchical multiple
regression analysis. The results were consistent with cognitive and social
constructivism, and self-efficacy theory.
The findings inform the mathematics education community about the
effect/influence the flipped classroom model has on student achievement in college
algebra. Findings also confirm the pronounced role self-efficacy plays with respect
to student achievement. Findings also confirm that gender, race/ethnicity, and
students’ attitudes toward mathematics make little contribution to explaining the
variance in final exam scores.||en_US