Computational Method to Calculate Output Current for Gated SPAD to Determine DCR and PDE
Azzahrani, Ahmad Salih
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The problem of detecting a single-photon is receiving considerable attention with the development of new single-photon detectors in stressed free-space optical communication, low probability of intercept (LPI) optical communication, quantum communication, and remote sensing. The theoretical modeling of the waveforms of the single-photon detector output produced in particular systems will expedite the search for and analysis of detected signals. A mathematical model of the output current of a single-photon avalanche detector (SPAD) gated with sinusoidal and Gaussian signals is developed and discussed. The mathematical model is combined with existing circuit and physical models to produce a compact model of the SPAD. Compact modeling of single-photon detectors allows the performance of single-photon detectors to be further improved. This compact model eliminates the ambiguous calculation of the output current, dark count rate, and photon detection efficiency produced by the singlephoton avalanche detector.