Factors Related to the Assessment of the Effectiveness of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) at Airports
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that can be used to assess the effectiveness of EMS at airports in the United States (U.S.). A survey research methodology was used for this study in two phases. The first phase of the research study included a preliminary expert opinion survey of airport managers and other individuals acting in a supervisory role to determine and discuss how EMS help improve environmental performance, and ranked factors that may be related to assessing the effectiveness of EMS. The second survey was constructed based on feedback from these experts and targeted airport employees working in a non-supervisory role to obtain their perceptions of EMS’ effectiveness based on these factors. These opinions were measured on a Likert-type scale from 1=Strongly Disagree to 5=Strongly Agree. Descriptive statistics were used to help analyze the relevant data and gather conclusions. Through the research conducted, four main factors were identified namely: compliance with relevant regulations and legislation, improves environmental performance, cost effectiveness, and improve public image and bring market opportunities. The first and fourth named factors were ranked same in both phases of the survey but the second and third named factors were ranked differently. Specifically, improves environmental performance was ranked second in the first phase, but third in the second phase of the study. Moreover, there were ten specific items could be considered critical factors related to assessing the effectiveness of EMS because the mean scores for these items were 3.5 or higher, meaning participants tended to agree with these items. These findings can provide the guidance for airport management to determine the effectiveness of EMS and provide a practical tool for airport operators to engage in continuous improvement. These factors also could be tailored as, or tied to performance measures for the purpose of strategic planning.