An Approach to Improve Single Photon Detectors for Highly Sensitive Applications
Kadhim, Ahmed Chyad
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The problem of detecting a single photon is receiving considerable attention with the development of new single photon detectors in biophotonics, stressed free-space optical communication, low probability of intercept (LPI) optical communication, quantum communication, and remote sensing. The theoretical modeling of the waveforms of the single photon detector output produced in particular systems will expedite the search for and analysis of detected signals. Since SNSPDs require cooling to very low temperature, 4K, and PMTs work on the visible wavelength, current photon detection focus on research developing SPADs and using InGaAs/InP materials. However, SPADs can work over the infrared range of wavelength, and can work at moderate temperature, about 200K, SPAD performance is affected by several parameters: afterpulsing probability (AP), dark count rate (DCR), jitter time (tj), photon detection efficiency (PDE), and temperature (T). The parameters are dependent on each other, and there are no obvious mathematical models to show their dependency. A mathematical model of a single photon detector avalanche photodiode (SPAD) gated with a soliton signal is introduced and developed, this model will enable the use of SPAD in single diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and photon LIDAR (SPL) applications. This mathematical model will be combined with existing circuit and physical model to produce a compact model of the SPAD using Riccati nonlinear differential equation. Compact modeling of single photon detectors will allow the performance of single photon detectors to be further improved. This compact model will allow the unambiguous calculation of the output current, dark count rate, after-pulsing probability, photon detection efficiency, and jitter time produced by a single photon detector.