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dc.contributor.authorKelley, Nicole A.
dc.contributor.authorSmith, David M.
dc.contributor.authorDwyer, Joseph R.
dc.contributor.authorSplitt, Michael E.
dc.contributor.authorLazarus, Steven M
dc.contributor.authorMartínez-Mckinney, Forest
dc.contributor.authorHazelton, Bryna J.
dc.contributor.authorGrefenstette, Brian W.
dc.contributor.authorLowell, Alexander W.
dc.contributor.authorRassoul, Hamid K
dc.date.accessioned2017-10-20T17:20:17Z
dc.date.available2017-10-20T17:20:17Z
dc.date.issued2015-08-12
dc.identifier.citationKelley, N. A., Smith, D. M., Dwyer, J. R., Splitt, M., Lazarus, S., Martinez-McKinney, F., . . . Rassoul, H. K. (2015). Relativistic electron avalanches as a thunderstorm discharge competing with lightning. Nature Communications, 6en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11141/2102
dc.descriptionelectromagnetic field, electron density, gamma ray radiation, lightning, plasma, thunderstorm Article, electric field, electron, electron transport, gamma radiation, gamma rays glow, lightning, Monte Carlo method, physical parameters, physical phenomena, positron, relativistic runaway electron avalanche, thunderstorm discharge, ice.en_US
dc.description.abstractGamma-ray 'glows' are long duration (seconds to tens of minutes) X-ray and gamma-ray emission coming from thunderclouds. Measurements suggest the presence of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREA), the same process underlying terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Here we demonstrate that glows are relatively a common phenomena near the tops of thunderstorms, when compared with events such as terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Examining the strongest glow measured by the airborne detector for energetic emissions, we show that this glow is measured near the end of a downward RREA, consistent with occurring between the upper positive charge layer and the negative screening layer above it. The glow discharges the upper positive layer by ≥9.6 mA, strong enough to be an important charging mechanism of the storm. For this glow, the gamma-ray flux observed is close to the value at which relativistic feedback processes become important, with an avalanche multiplication factor of 4,500. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.rights© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://www.nature.com/authors/author_resources/deposition.html#selfarchiveen_US
dc.titleRelativistic electron avalanches as a thunderstorm discharge competing with lightningen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/ncomms8845


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