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dc.contributor.authorSchaal, Meagan M.
dc.contributor.authorDwyer, Joseph R.
dc.contributor.authorSaleh, Ziad H.
dc.contributor.authorRassoul, Hamid K.
dc.contributor.authorHill, Jonathan D.
dc.contributor.authorJordan, Douglas M.
dc.contributor.authorUman, Martin A.
dc.date.accessioned2017-10-20T17:17:56Z
dc.date.available2017-10-20T17:17:56Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.citationSchaal, M. M., Dwyer, J. R., Saleh, Z. H., Rassoul, H. K., Hill, J. D., Jordan, D. M., & Uman, M. A. (2012). Spatial and energy distributions of X-ray emissions from leaders in natural and rocket triggered lightning. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 117(15)en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11141/2097
dc.descriptionCharacteristic energy, Energetic electron, Energetic radiation, Energy distributions, Ground-based observations, International center for lightning research and testing, Lightning discharge, Lightning initiation, Monte Carlo Simulation, Return stroke current, Runaway electrons, Stepped leader, Theoretical calculations, Total energy, Triggered flashes, Triggered lightning, Underlying mechanism, X-ray emission, X-ray energies, X-ray luminosityen_US
dc.description.abstractEnergetic radiation is known to be produced by lightning. To investigate these emissions, ground-based observations are being conducted at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, FL where measurements of energetic radiation from both natural and rocket-triggered lightning discharges are recorded. In the present study, data from two natural negative cloud-to-ground stepped leaders and one rocket-triggered "chaotic" dart leader are analyzed in detail to investigate X-ray energy spectra and spatial X-ray distributions around the source. These measurements are compared with Monte Carlo simulations of runaway electron propagation with the goal of understanding the underlying mechanism of runaway electron production and their role in lightning initiation and propagation. We show that the energetic electrons that produce X-rays exhibit a characteristic energy less than 3MeV for two natural and one rocket-triggered leaders investigated. In addition to studying these three leaders, energetic electron luminosity, total energy, and energetic electron per meter are compared to the following return stroke currents for 28 leaders from 12 different triggered flashes. Electron luminosity is found to increase exponentially with return stroke current up to about 10 kA and to be roughly constant for larger currents. The maximum electron luminosity, which is determined indirectly through X-ray luminosities, is on the order of 1017 electrons/s, which is less than the value found from theoretical calculations. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.rights© 2012 by the American Geophysical Unionen_US
dc.rights.urihttp://publications.agu.org/author-resource-center/usage-permissions/#repositoryen_US
dc.titleSpatial and energy distributions of X-ray emissions from leaders in natural and rocket triggered lightningen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1029/2012JD017897


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