Cascaded neural networks for sequenced propagation estimation, multiuser detection, and adaptive radio resource control of third-generation wireless networks for multimedia services
Hortos, William S.
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A hybrid neural network approach is presented to estimate radio propagation characteristics and multiuser interference and to evaluate their combined impact on throughput, latency and information loss in third-generation (3G) wireless networks. The latter three performance parameters influence the quality of service (QoS) for multimedia services under consideration for 3G networks. These networks, based on a hierarchical architecture of overlaying macrocells on top of micro- and picoells, are planned to operate in mobile urban and indoor environments with service demands emanating from circuit-switched, packetswitched and satellite-based traffic sources. Candidate radio interfaces for these networks employ a form of wideband CDMA in 5-MHz and wider-bandwidth channels, with possible asynchronous operation of the mobile subscribers. The proposed neural network (NN) architecture allocates network resources to optimize QoS metrics. Parameters of the radio propagation channel are estimated, followed by control of an adaptive antenna array at the base station to minimize interference, and then joint multiuser detection is performed at the base station receiver. These adaptive processing stages are implemented as a sequence of NN techniques that provide their estimates as inputs to a final-stage Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM). The SOFM optimizes the allocation of available network resources to satisfy QoS requirements for variable-rate voice, data and video services. As the first stage of the sequence, a modified feed-forward multilayer perceptron NN is trained on the pilot signals of the mobile subscribers to estimate the parameters of shadowing, multipath fading and delays on the uplinks. A recurrent NN (RNN) forms the second stage to control base stations' adaptive antenna arrays to minimize intra-cell interference. The third stage is based on a Hopfield NN (HNN), modified to detect multiple users on the uplink radio channels to mitigate multiaccess interference, control carrier-sense multiple-access (CSMA) protocols, and refine call handoff procedures. In the final stage, the Kohonen SOFM, operating in a hybrid continuous and discrete space, adaptively allocates the resources of antenna-based cell sectorization, activity monitoring, variable-rate coding, power control, handoff and caller admission to meet user demands for various multimedia services at minimum QoS levels. The performance of the NN cascade is evaluated through simulation of a candidate 3G wireless network using W-CDMA parameters in a small-cell environment. The simulated network consists of a representative number of cells. Mobile users with typical movement patterns are assumed. QoS requirements for different classes of multimedia services are considered. The proposed method is shown to provide relatively low probability of new call blocking and handoff dropping, while maintaining efficient use of the network's radio resources.