An Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometric Sensor using Intermodal Phase Shifting and Demultiplexing of the Propagating Modes in a Few-Mode Fiber
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This dissertation demonstrates a fiber-optic phase shifted Fabry-Perot interferometer (PS-FPI) as a sensor using modal demultiplexing. Single wavelength Fabry-Perot interferometers suffer from fringe ambiguity and loss of sensitivity at fringe extremes. These hindrances cause it to be a secondary choice when being selected for a measurement task at hand, and more often than not, white light based sensors are selected in favor of the single wavelength Fabry-Perot sensors. This work aims to introduce a technique involving the demultiplexing of the propagating linearly polarized (LP) modes in few mode fibers to obtain two fringe systems from the same sensing cavity. This results in a few-mode interferometer that effectively has two to three orders of magnitude higher perturbation sensitivity than a conventional few mode interferometer for the same sensing region. In this work, two different modal demultiplexing techniques (MD) are used to demodulate the propagating modes and to obtain two fringe sets. These output fringe sets are shifted in phase with respect to each other by a phase shift due to the propagation of the modes in the fiber-optic layout. A method of controlling this phase shift by straining a length of a two mode fiber located separate from the PS-FPI cavity is demonstrated and corresponding changes in phase shifts are shown. The results show a controllable phase shift for both the MD techniques, which is useful in sensing by permitting quadrature demodulation of interferometric fringes and also results in a novel few-mode sensing system having more than two orders of magnitude sensitivity than conventional few-mode devices.