Leader Emotion Management Behavior and Perceived Leader Effectiveness: The Moderating Roles of Gender and Culture
A key aspect of successful management includes a leader’s responsibility to manage employees’ emotions (Leavitt & Bahrami, 1988). This form of management can be reflected in a number of behaviors, such as demonstrating consideration and support for employees, providing frequent emotional “uplifts,” and managing interactions and relationships among coworkers (Kaplan, Cortina, Ruark, LaPort, & Nicolaides, 2014). Emotion-related skills and abilities have been supported as critical assets in management (e.g., George, 2000; Pescosolido, 2002). However, this evidence has not been sufficiently verified in a cross-cultural setting. The cultural value of gender egalitarianism, or the degree of gender role differentiation in a society (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004), is hypothesized to moderate the extent to which leader emotion management (LEM) behavior is linked to effectiveness. Although that particular relationship is not supported in this research, exploratory analyses indicated a potential link between gender egalitarianism and gender-based differences in leader emotion management behavior.